In this article, I tell you about internet development, How the Internet Developed and the History of the internet. In the 1960s, the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) of the United States funded a research project. The project was to connect computer engineers and scientists working in Universities using computers.
An Introduction to The internet
How the Internet Developed? The physical layer included the use of the telephone line, and what is now called POTS: Plain Old Telephone System. This project was called ARPANET. Soon ARPANET became extremely useful for university researchers. A protocol is a program that executes tasks in a network in a standardized manner. It has a standard set of headers for transfer requests, environmental variables, fields, parameters, methods, status code definitions, and negotiation methods between a sender and receiver or a client and a server.
[Refer to http://www.sei.cmu.edu/str/descriptions/clientserver.html] for a detailed description of the client-server architecture in detail. ARPANET users started sharing the resources of the computers by tale-networking using a protocol called Telnet. This protocol shares a remote computer’s resources through a telephone. File transferring, tale-networking, mailing (called e-mail) were then the main uses. Since researchers in universities mainly used UNIX- based computers (machines) up to the late 1970s, ARPANET mainly interconnected the UNIX machines. In 1975, Vinton Cerf of Stanford University developed a transport layer protocol and re-ported it in a paper “a protocol for packet network interconnection “presented IEEE transactions on communication, COM-22, 637-648, May 1974. This protocol he called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
He also developed a network layer protocol called Internet Protocol (IP). TCP / IP means the use of TCP (or UDP) at the transport layer and also the use of IP at the network layer. The TCP / IP suite of protocols soon became the main standard for computer networking. Meanwhile, Robert Metcalfe Developed the Ethernet LAN the Ethernet LAN soon became the method and also the main standard at the local level in an organization. The TCP /IP, therefore, networked these LAN also at the WAN level In the 1980s, the National Science Foundation (NSF).
Useful information: internet Development
Founded TCP / IP network establishes a network, NSFNET. Initially, NSFNET uses digital exchanges and also the speed of 56 kbps over the telephone line. In 1988 start use the T1 (1.544 Mbps) carrier to network regional networks these regional networks than hierarchically network universities in the USA. [Note: kbps means a thousand bits per second and also 1mbps means a million per second. One character takes eight bits. One line of text takes – 750 bits. One page of the test is 25000 bits.
One Mbps means 40 pages of text per second. These regional networks not only networked the host UNIX machines and also computer systems at the universities, but also the DOS. The based provider came into being, analogous to the current-day service provider, Internet Service Provider (ISP) – [An ISP is a service provider who connects the user computers, LANs, etc. to the Internet.] A large network of networks following the uniform protocol TCP / IP took shape through these regional networks and also it evolved into what is now a grand network of networks, the Internet. From 1988 to 1993, the number of packets communicated grew to around 30 billion per month. [1 Packet = 2^16 bytes maximum]. In the USA, the main uses were as follows.
- File transfer
- Electronic Bulletin Board
- Telnet (remote computer share through telephone)
These applications, also called services, are described in Sections 2. 4 to 2.9 in 1993, NSFNET networks started using the T3 (45Mbps) carrier to network a large number and also a variety of users (hosts). In 1995, the NSF support ended, and also non – governmental ISPs in the USA took over regional networks. After 1995, NSF support continued only for high-speed optical fiber-based OC – 3C (155. 52 Mbps) research networks in the universities.
NSF- supported services were analogous to the service being provided by current-day Backbone service providers (BSPs) and also Network Access Point (NAPs) operators. Using dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) it is now feasible to obtain 20 Gbps and also 40 Gbps rates of data transfer between NAPs. In the next phase of development Internet 2nd use STM – 4 / OC12 (622. 08 Mbps). It provides a very high-speed backbone network service (vBNS). It forms what is called broadband. Provides fast access for streaming video.